In the process of applying the Group's accounting policies, as described in Note 2, management has made the following judgements and estimations that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements.
(a) Recoverability of capitalised R&D
During the year £6.2 million (2017: £5.2 million) of development costs were capitalised, bringing the total amount of development costs capitalised as intangible assets as at 31 December 2018 to £20.1 million (2017: £16.0 million), net of amortisation. Management has reviewed the balances by project, compared the carrying amount to expected future revenues and profits and is satisfied that no impairment exists and that the costs capitalised will be fully recovered as the products are launched to market. New product projects are monitored regularly and should the technical or market feasibility of a new product be in question, the project would be cancelled and capitalised costs to date will be removed from the balance sheet and charged to the statement of comprehensive income.
(b) Impairment of goodwill
The Group tests annually for impairment of goodwill, or more frequently if there are indications that goodwill might be impaired.
An impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of a CGU, including the goodwill, exceeds the recoverable amount of the CGU. The recoverable amount of a CGU is the higher of the CGU's fair value less cost to sell and value-in-use.
The recoverable amount of the goodwill is determined from value-in-use calculations. The key assumptions and estimates for the value-in-use calculations are those regarding the discount rates, growth rates and expected changes to sales and overheads during the period. Management estimates discount rates using pre-tax rates that reflect current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the cash-generating units.
The Group prepares cash flow forecasts derived from the most recent financial results and takes into account industry growth forecasts for the next five years and extrapolates cash flows for the following five years assuming no growth from that date. The carrying amount of goodwill as at 31 December 2018 was £54.1 million (2017: £40.4 million) with no impairment adjustment required for 2018.
Management assessed that there are no realistic foreseeable changes that will result in impairment loss on the goodwill allocated to the North America, Europe and Asia operating segments.